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A royal centre is thought to have existed at Oddernes before , and the church was built around Before the stone church was built, one or perhaps two wooden post churches are believed to have stood on the same spot. A few years ago, excavations were carried out under and around the runestone when it was moved to the church porch; the grave finds indicated that the churchyard must already have been unusually large in the High Middle Ages.

This means that the area must have had a large population before it was reduced by the Black Death. In the 14th and 15th centuries, there was already a busy port and a small village on the Otra at the lowest point of today's Lund neighbourhood Lahelle. In , King Christian IV ordered his feudal seigneur , Palle Rosenkrantz, to move from Nedenes and build a royal palace on the island. Christian IV renowned for having founded many towns visited the location in and , and on 5 July formally founded the town of Christianssand on the "sand" on the opposite bank of the Torridalselva Otra.

In return, they were to receive a variety of trading privileges and a ten-year tax exemption. In , Christianssand became a garrison town and was heavily fortified. In , King Christian V decided to relocate the bishopric there from Stavanger. Hence, the young city became the main city of the Christiansand Stift. Christianssand experienced its first fire in , which was devastating to the city.

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Later in the 18th century, after the American Revolutionary War , the town's shipbuilders experienced a boom that lasted until the Napoleonic Wars , when the continental blockade and naval warfare struck a severe blow to trade. Denmark—Norway supported France in the Wars and was therefore subjected to relentless attack by Britain, as recounted in Ibsen 's Terje Vigen. Only in the s did the economy begin to recover, and the growth in the Norwegian shipping industry was important for Christianssand. The city had far fewer deaths than the surrounding area, largely attributable to the quarantine station and the hospital.

For example, during the period of —, Drammen had cholera patients, of which died. During this same period, Kristiansand only experienced 15 deaths from cholera. Another important development during the 19th century was the foundation in of Eg Sindssygeasyl , the second central psychiatric institution in Norway after Gaustad.

The psychiatric hospital drew highly specialized doctors to the city and also provided many jobs for women. The most recent major fire, in , left half the original section of the city in ashes. It burned buildings as far as the cathedral , which had been rebuilt in brick after a previous fire in With the development of hydropower in southern Norway, the city gradually developed an industrial base, particularly with the establishment in of the nickel refinery Kristiansands Nikkelraffineringsverk AS later Falconbridge Nikkelverk, now Glencore Nikkelverk.

From an economic perspective, the First World War was a good time for Kristiansand, as a neutral shipping city. The crises that followed with the gold standard politics of the s and the world economic crisis of the s were also deeply felt in a trading city like Kristiansand. The labour movement had important pioneers in the city, and Leon Trotsky spent about a year of his exile in the archipelago offshore from Kristiansand. Kristiansand was attacked by German naval forces and the Luftwaffe during the Operation Weserübung on 9 April Bombs and grenades also hit the downtown and the 70 meter high church tower of the Kristiansand Cathedral was hit by accident.

The third attack attempt on the city succeeded because a signal flag was confused with a French national flag and the misunderstanding was not discovered until it was too late. The city was occupied by a force of men. In the s, industry and business in the city declined, in part because of the fire at the Hotel Caledonien. But beginning in the second half of the s, business increased in momentum with the development of enterprises for marine and offshore equipment, security technology and drilling.

This includes documents concerning, for example, local councils, chairmanships, poor boards, school boards and archives including among other things personal documents in the form of client records, tax records, and also school records. The arms of Kristiansand were granted on 8 December and are based on the oldest seal of the city, dating from In King Christian IV granted the young town the right to use a seal with the Norwegian lion and the royal crown.

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The crown indicates that the city was founded by the king. The other major element in the arms is a tree. As the species of tree is not specified, there are several known versions with differently shaped trees. A second seal, from , shows a tree with leaves and what look like pine cones. Around the seal of the city is its motto, Cavsa Triumphat Tandem Bona , "A good cause prevails in the end".

Kristiansand is strategically located on the Skagerrak , and until the opening of the Kiel Canal between the North Sea and the Baltic was very important militarily and geopolitically. This meant that for centuries it served as a military stronghold, first as Harald Fairhair 's royal residence, then as a Danish-Norwegian fortress, and later as a garrison town. Kristiansand is a gateway to and from the continent, with ferry service to Denmark and a terminus of the railway line along the southern edge of South Norway.

Geologically, this part of Agder is part of the Swedo-Norwegian Base Mountain Shield, the southwestern section of the Baltic Shield , and consists of two main geological formations of Proterozoic rocks that were formed in the Gothic and later Swedo-Norwegian orogenies , with significant metamorphism during the latter. The Bamblefelt geological area starts to the east of the municipality and extends to Grenland.

The last Swedo-Norwegian formations are evident in large formations of granite. There are also incidences of gabbro and diorite , less commonly eclogite. The Caledonian orogeny did not affect this area. Faults run southwest—northeast. Near the city, there are deep woods.

Two major rivers, the Otra and the Tovdalselva , flow into the Skagerrak at Kristiansand. The climate in the city is warmer than most other places at the same latitude, but with cooler summers than farther east in Scandinavia.

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The Gulf Stream provides local warming through surface currents along the Norwegian trench. In the summer most locals go to the Fiskebrygga , the archipelago opposite the city, and Hamresanden Beach, which is located about 10 minutes from the city centre near Kjevik airport.

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People from Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the UK and other European countries also visit this beach in the summer during their travels. But temperatures have tended to be higher in recent years. The highest temperature ever recorded in Kristiansand was The highest average temperature for Kristiansand in July was set in where there was an average temperature of Kristiansand is partitioned into 18 parts and subparts.

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Kristiansand is also divided into 5 boroughs. Kvadraturen is the city center of Kristiansand.

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The area belonged to the farms Eg and Grim, and was a sandy plain covered with forest, and was called Sanden or Grimsmoen. Christian IV 's town plan outlined the city center with 56 rectangular squares with five long blocks and eight cross streets. It was the squares along the Otra and east and west harbor, which was built first. The area Posebyen in Kvadraturen is Northern Europe's longest continuous wooden buildings. In the parts are among others Kristiansand Cathedral , Kristiansand City Hall , Wergeland Park, and the terminal for ferries to Hirtshals and Kristiansand Station is located in the parts western corner.

Bredalsholmen Shipyard and Preservation Centre is a national hub for maintenance of museum ships and cherish worthy coastal culture, and a drydock with considerable capacity. Lund is the second largest borough in Kristiansand with a population of 9, inhabitants in There has been a settlement here since the Stone Age. During the Viking Age there was a great man's farm here.

A Runestone at Oddernes church provides a connection to this farm. A large field with burial mounds formerly existed south and west of the church, and may also be associated with this farm. In robbers from the sea came and attacked Lund. This is mentioned in two letters located in the National Archives. The letters describe the attack that took place with a lot of violence against both women and men and that on both sides suffered casualties.

No one know who the robbers were, but their centurion was named Per Syvertsen. The name suggests that he and his crew came from Norway or Denmark. Tveit is a village and a former municipality in Vest-Agder county. It is located in the present-day municipality of Kristiansand. Tveit is home to Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik. Tveit is located along the lower part of the Tovdalselva river, known as Topdalselva from the border with Aust-Agder.

The population of Tveit is approximately 2, Tinnheia]] is a part in the Grim borough]].


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The municipality was merged into a large municipality with the former municipality of Songdalen and the city of Kristiansand on January 1, Songdalen was a former municipality, located northwest of Kristiansand. The city has no local parliamentary government, but is managed by the city council and an executive committee.

The mayor is the spokesman for the city, head of the city council and leader of the executive committee. In Kristiansand the mayor has represented the center-right parties since the late s. At the municipal election the city council election in Kristiansand had the parties that at the national level were in opposition progress.

The greatest progress had the Green Party , which was a national trend. Labour Party became the largest party. The Conservative Party that the mayor represents had a little setback, [23] but the majority of the City Council once again chose a conservative mayor. New mayor was Harald Furre. Kristiansand has the third largest Vietnamese community in Norway.

Kristiansand Cathedral is the largest church in Kristiansand. It is located in Kvadraturen with the town hall and Wergelandsparken.

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The church was built in and have the capacity of people. Grim Church was built in and has a capacity of people. Lund Church was built in and has a capacity of people. The church was Kristiansand municipality year building and is the largest church in Oddernes.